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Tuesday, February 20, 2024

Greater-income earners will contribute extra to CPP, however get extra too

Jamie Golombek: A second CPP contribution fee and earnings ceiling is being launched in 2024

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Canada Income Company earlier this month introduced the brand new 2024 numbers for Canada Pension Plan (CPP) contributions, and whereas the CPP earnings limits and corresponding contributions do go up every year, beginning Jan. 1, 2024, section two of the CPP enhancements signifies that some higher-income earners can be contributing extra, however may also get extra in return.

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Earlier than sharing the brand new 2024 figures, let’s evaluation the fundamentals. The CPP is a compulsory contributory pension plan that covers almost all Canadian staff, aside from these in Quebec, who’re lined by the Quebec Pension Plan (QPP). The CPP supplies fundamental earnings substitute for its contributors and their households when the contributor retires, dies or turns into disabled. The CPP is financed by contributions from workers, employers and self-employed people, and the funds are professionally managed by the CPP Funding Board.

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Enhancements to the CPP started in 2019 and, as soon as absolutely applied, might probably enhance the utmost CPP retirement pension by as much as 50 per cent for youthful staff simply beginning out. Section two of the enhancements begins in January 2024.

Each workers and enterprise house owners are required to contribute to the CPP based mostly on pensionable earnings. Since 2019, the CPP contribution fee has steadily elevated yearly to five.95 per cent in 2023 from 4.95 per cent in 2018 (earlier than the enhancement), for a complete enhance of 1 share level for each workers and employers. If you happen to’re self-employed, you pay each the worker and employer parts, for a 2023 contribution fee of 11.9 per cent.

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For 2023, Canadians over 18 who make greater than $3,500 yearly contribute 5.95 per cent of their employment earnings (above that base quantity) to the CPP, as much as the 12 months’s most pensionable earnings (YMPE), which is $66,600 for this 12 months. This YMPE is known as the “first earnings ceiling” in gentle of the upcoming enhancements. Given the YMPE of $66,600 and the essential exemption of $3,500, this implies the utmost worker CPP contribution this 12 months is $3,754 (double that, or $7,509, should you’re self-employed).

For 2024, worker and employer CPP contribution charges will stay at 5.95 per cent, however the most pensionable earnings will enhance to $68,500, whereas the essential exemption quantity stays at $3,500. This enhance was calculated in accordance with CPP laws, and takes into consideration the expansion in common weekly wages and salaries in Canada.

This implies the 2024 most CPP contribution can be $3,867.50 for every of the worker and employer parts. The self-employed CPP contribution fee stays at 11.9 per cent, and the utmost contribution will enhance to $7,735.

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Beginning Jan. 1, 2024, nonetheless, a second CPP contribution fee and earnings ceiling is being launched that can be referred to as the “12 months’s extra most pensionable earnings” (YAMPE). It is going to solely have an effect on staff whose earnings is above the primary earnings ceiling.

The extent of the second earnings ceiling is predicated on the worth of the primary earnings ceiling. For 2024, the second earnings ceiling was set at an quantity that’s seven per cent larger than the primary earnings ceiling, and for 2025, the second earnings ceiling can be set at an quantity that’s 14 per cent larger than the primary earnings ceiling.

In consequence, for 2024, pensionable earnings between $68,500 and $73,200 can be topic to “second CPP contributions” (CPP2) at an worker/employer fee of 4 per cent, with a most contribution of $188 every. The 2024 self-employed CPP2 contribution fee can be eight per cent, and the utmost self-employed contribution can be $376.

Let’s take an instance. Mudit has an annual earnings of $120,000, which is larger than the second earnings ceiling. He’ll make base and first CPP contributions at a fee of 5.95 per cent and, starting in 2024, second CPP contributions at a fee of 4 per cent on the distinction between the annual YAMPE and the YMPE.

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For 2023, Mudit contributed $3,754 of CPP contributions, being 5.95 per cent of the 2023 YMPE of $66,600, much less the $3,500 base quantity. For 2024, given the brand new YMPE of as much as $68,500, which is the primary earnings ceiling, he’ll contribute $3,867 of base CPP. Given the second earnings ceiling for 2024 of $73,200, Mudit will contribute the total $188 in second-level CPP for complete 2024 CPP contributions of $4,055.

The excellent news is that Mudit (and all workers) can declare a 15 per cent federal non-refundable credit score on base CPP contributions, that are calculated at a fee of 4.95 per cent, and a tax deduction for each first CPP contributions (one per cent) and the upcoming second CPP contributions.

Self-employed Canadians who contribute 9.9 per cent to CPP can declare a 15 per cent non-refundable federal tax credit score on 4.95 per cent of the bottom CPP contributions, and a tax deduction for the opposite 4.95 per cent. They will additionally declare a tax deduction on the improved portion of their contributions (two per cent in 2023).

For included self-employed enterprise house owners, together with professionals resembling docs, lawyer and accountants who function by way of skilled firms, the elevated value of CPP contributions in 2024 (simply over $8,100 for earnings of $73,200 or extra) should be thought-about when the compensation determination to pay your self wage or dividends (which aren’t topic to CPP contributions) is made for subsequent 12 months.

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It’s additionally vital to notice that not everybody will absolutely profit from the CPP enhancements. How a lot your CPP advantages enhance will rely upon how a lot you contribute to the enhancements and for the way lengthy.

For instance, the CPP enhancement will solely profit you when you have labored and contributed in 2019 or later. The longer you contribute to the improved CPP program, the bigger your complete CPP pension can be at retirement.

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Consequently, workers simply getting into the workforce will see the most important enhance in CPP advantages whereas workers who’re at present close to the tip of their working lives will see a small enhance. If you happen to’re at present receiving CPP, your CPP advantages received’t enhance past the annual inflationary adjustment.

Jamie Golombek, FCPA, FCA, CFP, CLU, TEP, is the managing director, Tax & Property Planning with CIBC Non-public Wealth in Toronto. Jamie.Golombek@cibc.com.

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